Porcelain color

 
Brown color decoration
Black decoration
Blue colors
Gold enamels
Song additive colors
Fahua color
 


  Color used for decoration on the porcelain occurred in the late period of Xi Jin Dynasty at first. Then simple designs composed of brown speckles could be found on some celadon in South China. In Sui dynasty, the hair, cap, frown, eyes and the cloths on the porcelain has been painted by black decoration. Underglaze brown glaze was then produced in Changsha ware in Tang dynasty. While Overglaze decoration originated from Song dynasty. Moreover, the blue and white, underglaze red and gold enamels just occurred in Jin and Yuan dynasty.
  Various kinds of decorative porcelain occurred in succession in Xuande and Chenghua period of Ming dynasty. For example, clobbering red decorative on the blue and white porcelain made during the years of Xuande and doucai contrasting colors made during Chenghua period. The blue decorative and kingfisher blue were created in Jingdezhen in Qing dynasty. The famille rose possessing unique decoration style was formed gradually in the years of Kangxi and reached the summit in Yongzheng and Qianlong period. Down to the middle period of Qing dynasty, foreign color was began to be used because of the introduction of decorative arts from western countries.

Brown color decoration


 


  Brown color decoration is a kind of pigment which uses iron as its color generation. It was first seen in the later part of Xijin and widely used from Dongjin to early Nan dynasty. It has two decoration styles: one is that different designs composed of dots were painted at the rim of the mouth and the shoulder. Another is to paint the designs in long-stripped shape. The length and the thickness of the line should be in accordance with the surface of the porcelain. Commonly, the lines on the lids are thin and short, while long and thick on the abdomen.


Black decoration



  Onglaze black decoration was mainly used to draw the outline and the artery of branches and leaves. The main staining elements of our traditional onglaze black decoration are iron, manganese, cobalt and copper. It has two main characteristics: firstly, saltpeter cannot be added when compounding the black decoration pigments. As a result, the content of potassium and natrium is low. Secondly, the leather pastern is used as mastic gum, which makes the lose rate of firing for black decoration pigments reaches twenty percent.

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Blue colors

 TThe traditional onglaze blue colors developed from cobalt blue lead glaze, which was used on sancai since Tang dynasty. Natural asbolane is the coloring agent for blue glaze and blue colors. There are different amount of iron, manganese and other elements in the asbolane; they are the traditional coloring agent for onglaze blue colors. Sometimes a little amount of copper was added in blue colors so as to slightly adjust the tinge of it.

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Gold enamels


  The decoration of gold enamels on the porcelain may appear splendid and increase their artistic value. Such decoration was invented in Tang dynasty. Gilding and appliqu└ing products were already found in the tombs during this period. The porcelain of gold enamels fired in Ding kiln, Jian kiln and the gold enamels on the porcelain of Yuan, Ming dynasty still used gold foil. It was not until Qing dynasty that gold foil was replaced by gold powder. From the aspects of techniques, it was gilding that substitute appliqu└ing. In late Qing dynasty, liquid gold was invented by a German and then introduced to China. As a result, gold foil and gold powder was gradually eliminated. Liquid gold has the advantage of low consumption and simple usage so as to become the main pigment of gold enamels.

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Song additive colors


  In Song dynasty, a new technique was used in decorating porcelain. That is to dip the pigments with brush and then decorate simple veins on the surface of the glaze. After that, the porcelain will be decoration baked in the kiln under 800 centigrade so as to make the pigments and the glaze closely connected. That is why it is called "song additive colors". Such kinds of porcelain are mainly about paintings of plants and birds in red and green on white-glazed bowls and plates. So they are also called "song red and green colors".

 

 

  That the painting on the surface of the porcelain with brush symbolizes a new stage. From then on, incised decoration, printing decoration and appliqu└ decoration were eliminated and replaced by decoration.

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Fahua color


  Fahua color flourished in Puzhou and Zezhou in Shanxi province then imitated in different places. The producing of fahua is to paint veins on the surface with prominent and embossed decoration in colors of blue, green and purple. Fahua products made in Jingdezhen are mainly about people, plants and birds in shape of bottle and jar. Some of them are used for decoration while others are used as offerings. The body of fahua products are pure and the shape is elegant, especially the chrysanthemum-eared vase. Fahua was first used in Yuan dynasty and flourished in Ming dynasty, while little was fired after Qianlong period of Qing dynasty.

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